The RawMonitor plugin lets users specify via a custom instruction whenever a module of interest is loaded or unloaded. It is useful when using S2E on a new OS for which there is no plugin that automatically extracts this information. RawMonitor can also be used to analyze raw pieces of code, such as the BIOS, firmware, etc.

Custom Instruction

RawMonitor defines the following custom instruction (in s2e/monitors/raw.h):

void s2e_raw_load_module(const struct S2E_RAWMON_COMMAND_MODULE_LOAD *module);

It takes as parameter a pointer to a structure that describes the loaded module. Use this function in your code to manually specify module boundaries, for example: :

int main() {
  m.name = (uintptr_t) "myprog";
  m.path = (uintptr_t) "/home/user/myprog";
  m.pid = getpid();
  m.load_base = ... ; /* the address where myprog is loaded */
  m.size = ... ; /* size of myprog */
  m.entry_point = 0;
  m.native_base = 0;
  m.kernel_mode = 0;



The preferred way of using RawMonitor is through the s2e_raw_monitor* custom instructions, without specifying any module descriptor in the configuration. The s2e.so shared library uses this mechanism to provide basic Linux monitoring capabilities.

RawMonitor also accepts global options and an arbitrary number of per-module sections. Per-module options are prefixed with “module.” in the documentation. This can be useful to monitor modules loaded at known fixed addresses (e.g., kernel, BIOS, etc.).


Indicates the boundary between the memory mapped in all address spaces and process-specific memory. On Linux, this value is typically 0xC0000000, while one Windows it is 0x80000000. Set the value to zero if this distinction does not make sense (e.g., there are no address spaces).


The name of the module. This must match the name passed to s2e_raw_load_module.


The run-time address of the module. Set to zero if the runtime address is determined by the custom instruction.


The size of the module binary.


The default base address of the binary set by the linker.


Whether the module lies above or below the kernel-mode threshold. Assumes that the module is mapped in all address space at the same location above the kernel/user-space boundary.

Configuration Sample

-- The custom instruction will notify RawMonitor of all newly loaded modules
pluginsConfig.RawMonitor = {
    kernelStart = 0xc0000000,